The political and legal systems of indonesia
The political and legal systems of indonesia
However, the media is prohibited from reporting content or material of the closed hearing and disclosing sensitive information, such as the identity of minors, victims of sexual offences or any related information that can identify the minor or victim. The United States was founded not as one nation but as a union of 13 colonies, each claiming independence from the British Crown. State-owned legal persons. Dutch Era In , the Portuguese established its trade connection in Indonesia. Henry II established the king's court and designated that laws were "common" to the entire English realm. Belief in God that is, the candidate must have a religion that is recognised by the Government of Indonesia. The most recent changes to the French legal system - introduced in the s - were the decentralization laws, which transferred authority from centrally appointed government representatives to locally elected representatives of the people. A decision which negates or nullifies a certain legal condition or produces a new legal condition.
He used this term to contrast his rule with that of his predecessor, Sukarno dubbed the "Old Order," or Orde Lama. Additionally, the judiciary was consistently marginalized and stripped of its power as an equal branch of the government.
Legal issues in indonesia
Lost profits that were foreseeable as a result of the default or the action of the party at fault. The 50 state legislatures have similar authority to enact state statutes. The Taxation Court is established by Law No. However, a detailed legal system generally requires human elaboration. The Spanish Civil Code reflects a complex mixture of customary, Roman, Napoleonic, local, and modern codified law. There is also an overlay of post constitutional amendments seemingly modernizing public law at the highest levels, however, this is subject to three caveats. The main parties to a criminal trial are a panel of judges, the public prosecutor, the defendant and their legal counsel. Further information: Guided Democracy in Indonesia An era of Liberal Democracy Indonesian : Demokrasi Liberal in Indonesia began on August 17, following the dissolution of the federal United States of Indonesia less than a year after its formation, and ended with the imposition of martial law and President Sukarno's Decree regarding the introduction of Guided Democracy Indonesian : Demokrasi Terpimpin on July 5. Reform Era Since the resignation of former President Soeharto until now, the constitution has been amended 4 times, in October , August , November , and August To what extent are juries used? However, in some cases the court may use or cite previous interpretations of an article, law or regulation. The Military Court is established within the Army. A condemnatoir decision gives the right to an executorial ruling, which means it is binding and can be enforced. Roman law remained the legal system of the Byzantine Eastern Empire until the fall of Constantinople in
United States Law - A type of common law, which is the basis of the legal system of the United States and that of its island possessions in the Caribbean and the Pacific.
This legal system combined the Teutonic civil law tradition of the northern provinces of France with the Roman law tradition of the southern and eastern regions of the country. The laboratory of federalism concept does not necessarily mean that secular modernism prevails, but the natural counterweight is the extent to which secular or national law is an acceptable common denominator for diverse ethnic and religious populations in a large country.
Examples of closed hearings are: Cases concerning morals, or where the accused is a minor Article paragraph 3Criminal Procedural Law.
Suharto refused to countenance any changes to the constitution and the People's Consultative Assembly passed a law in requiring national referendum for the constitution amendments.
Indonesia legal system
Corruption, collusion, and nepotism were fairly associated with the executive, judiciary, and legislative branch of the government. The training and tests are administered by the judge recruitment committee. Common attributes of customary legal systems are that they are seldom written down, they embody an organized set of rules regulating social relations, and they are agreed upon by members of the community. Transition to the New Order[ edit ] Further information: Transition to the New Order The transition to the " New Order " in the mids, ousted Sukarno after 22 years in the position. The Indonesian courts use a non-adversarial system. Further, no testimony can be heard from Article , HIR : Family related by blood, or relatives by marriage. Criminal law Judges can issue the verdicts that the defendant is acquitted, that the case is dismissed, or that the defendant is guilty Article , Criminal Procedure Law. International law differs from other legal systems in that it primarily concerns sovereign political entities. Other factors that influenced the development of international law included the revival of legal studies, the growth of international trade, and the practice of exchanging emissaries and establishing legations.
This court is established by Law No.
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