An examination of the validity of the werther epidemic
Klemp, The dependence of numerically simulated convective storms on vertical wind shear and buoyancy. LaDue, Initiation of storm A 3 May along a possible horizontal convective roll.
Blanchard, A baseline climatology of sounding-derived supercell and tornado forecast parameters. Benjamin, G. The intent here is to document the environment and evolution of the 3 May tornado outbreak from the view of operational forecasters. When forecasting a threat of tornadoes, the mode of convective initiation and the number and spacing of supercells that form are critical to the number of tornadoes expected. Church, Ed. The watch issuance strategy was complicated greatly by thunderstorm initiation occurring somewhat sooner than expected, and just minutes before the arrival of the evening shift for briefing. Speheger, D. The depth of the feature m above ground level appeared to be within a few hundred meters of the LFC height derived from modified soundings roughly m above ground level ; therefore, an HCR updraft was a potential mechanism for convective initiation. Figure It is conceivable that the outbreak would not have materialized in such intense or prolific form had the convergence been stronger along a consolidated dryline, and had numerous storms formed simultaneously and merged into a larger-scale convective system in the weakly capped environment over northwestern Texas and western Oklahoma during the afternoon. Also, the kinematic observations in central Oklahoma from UTC suggested that storm characteristics may not always be predictable, especially when the mesoscale storm environment is changing with time. Between and UTC, the initial towering cumuli and brief cumulonimbi in northwestern Texas dissipated. Ostby, F. Note: Please don't include any URLs in your comments, as they will be removed upon submission.
The initial area of cumulus is shown in Fig. Consecutive categorical risk upgrades were made in the and 20 UTC Day-1 outlooks.
Doswell, C. The large temporal variability in SRH during the late afternoon hours was similar to that noted in previous studies of tornadic supercell environments by Davies-Jones and Markowski et al. Figure 8. Part I: Observations of the role of upper-level storm-relative flow. The intent here is to document the environment and evolution of the 3 May tornado outbreak from the view of operational forecasters. By UTC, local television news video showed a wide, long-lived tornado moving toward the southern portion of the Oklahoma City area from the southwest. Cuperus, S. The 3 May outbreak included two prolific supercells which produced several violent tornadoes, with ambient parameters comparable to those of past tornado outbreaks in the southern and central Great Plains. Smith, T.
For example, Weckwerth has documented the sensitivity of deep moist convective development to moisture distribution, which may become exceptionally important to nowcasting thunderstorm formation in the absence of strong baroclinic boundaries such as fronts or outflows.
Parallelograms in South Dakota and Nebraska represent severe thunderstorm watches; all others are tornado watches. Lightest green shade corresponds to the. III, and G.
Still, the roles of a wide variety of pre-existing boundaries in convective initiation and tornadogenesis, including weakly convergent drylines, HCRs, confluence axes, and various reflectivity patterns not evident in surface and satellite data, warrant much additional attention.
Both the Purcell profiler at 23 UTC 3 May and the Norman sounding at 00 UTC 4 May revealed storm-relative winds in the km layer that appeared to be marginal for sustained supercells with significant tornadoes after Thompson Rasmussen, E.
Werther effect definition
In the same mesoscale region, several supercells may develop in association with different forms of boundaries. Grell, A past and future look at the Rapid Update Cycle for the 3 May severe weather outbreak. Kidneys keep the body healthy by filtering dangerous fluids and waste products from the blood. NOAA Tech. General thunderstorm lines are unlabeled. Figure 11a. Much of the difficulty in anticipating the magnitude of the tornado threat hrs in advance was the result of poor numerical model forecasts of mid- and upper-tropospheric flow, and associated deep-layered vertical shear. The fine line was oriented parallel to the boundary layer flow, and Wilson et al. The problems that faced operational forecasters at the Storm Prediction Center are discussed in the context of this outbreak, including environmental shear and instability, subtle processes contributing to convective initiation, the roles of preexisting boundaries, and storm-relative flow. III, The operational meteorology of convective weather.
based on 6 review